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Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health
Life expectancy at birth
Maternal mortality ratio
Stillbirth rate
Neonatal mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
Under 5 mortality rate
Antenatal care coverage: 4+ visits
Antenatal care coverage: 8+ visits
Births attended by skilled health personnel
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Exclusive breastfeeding for infants under 6 months
Coverage of first dose of measles vaccination
Stunting - short height for age under age 5
Wasting – low weight for height under age 5
Overweight - heavy for height under 5
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Child marriage before age 15
Child marriage before age 18
Female genital mutilation
Sexual violence by age 18 - female
Sexual violence by age 18 - male
Very early child bearing under age 16
Adolescent birth rate ages 15 to 19
Contraceptive prevalance rate, modern methods, all women
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Non-Communicable Diseases
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Current tobacco use among females aged 15 and over
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Health Financing
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Density of health workers - nurses and midwives
Density of health workers - pharmaceutical staff
Qualified obstetricians
Birth registration
At least basic drinking water
At least basic sanitation services
Open defecation
Implementation of AMRH Initiative

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What does it mean ?
Full Name:Proportion of population practising open defecation
Full Unit: Percentage, %
Year-range of Data:2015
Source:WHO & UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene
Link to Source:https://washdata.org/data
Date Source Published:1st July 2017
Date Source Accessed:26th March 2018

The following countries had no data:
SADR

Alternative Data Sources
The target is taken from the target source as shown in the table on the left. This is the internationally agreed target for this indicator and country. Most targets are the same for all countries, but some may have different values for each country. Some indicators have no internationally agreed targets.

The threshold is taken from the same source where available. The threshold is an easier value than the target but shows good progress in achieving the target. For more details, go to ‘Find out more about indicator and sources’ via the Indicators page.

Open defecation

What does it mean ?

This is the proportion of the population practicing open defecation. Open defecation is defined as the disposal of human faeces in fields, forests, bushes, open bodies of water, beaches or other open spaces, or with solid waste.

Why does it matter ?

Access to sanitation is a fundamental need and human right critical for the dignity and health of all. The elimination of open defecation is recognised as a top priority for improving health, nutrition, and productivity in developing countries. This is an indicator for monitoring Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; Target 6.2: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. It is also an indicator for monitoring the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030) under Transform: Expand Enabling Environments.

How is it collected ?

The preferred sources of data are household surveys and population censuses. Surveys and censuses collect data directly from the users of sanitation facilities, therefore measure "use" and not "access". In high-income countries where household surveys or censuses do not always include information on the type of sanitation facilities used by the population, data are taken from administrative records.

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More about indicator, sources and calculations

More about indicator and sources

Open defecation is closely associated with extreme poverty. The spread of faecal pathogens in the environment is a major risk to public health and a leading cause of death, disease and malnutrition among young children. Open defecation is unhygienic and undignified and can also expose women and girls to danger of sexual harassment and physical attacks.

This is a core socio-economic and health indicator, and a key determinant of survival, health, wellbeing and economic productivity. This indicator is useful for constructing wealth quintiles used by many household surveys to analyse inequalities between rich and poor.

More information on calculations

To monitor Sustainable Development Goal targets for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene at home, additional information is being collected by household surveys, including on emptying of onsite sanitation facilities and the availability of a handwashing facility with water and soap. The use of drinking water sources and sanitation facilities is part of the wealth index in integrated household surveys used to assess inequalities between rich and poor by dividing the population into wealth quintiles.

For more information, visit: https://washdata.org/monitoring/sanitation

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