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Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health
Life expectancy at birth
Maternal mortality ratio
Stillbirth rate
Neonatal mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
Under 5 mortality rate
Antenatal care coverage: 4+ visits
Antenatal care coverage: 8+ visits
Births attended by skilled health personnel
Postpartum care coverage for mothers
Postnatal care coverage for newborns
Exclusive breastfeeding for infants under 6 months
Coverage of first dose of measles vaccination
Stunting - short height for age under age 5
Wasting – low weight for height under age 5
Overweight - heavy for height under 5
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Child marriage before age 15
Child marriage before age 18
Female genital mutilation
Sexual violence by age 18 - female
Sexual violence by age 18 - male
Very early child bearing under age 16
Adolescent birth rate ages 15 to 19
Contraceptive prevalance rate, modern methods, all women
Demand satisfied for modern contraception
Communicable Diseases
New HIV infections
Antiretroviral treatment coverage
Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Condom use
New TB infections
New malaria infections
Non-Communicable Diseases
Mortality from non-communicable diseases
Suicide mortality rate
Current tobacco use among females aged 15 and over
Current tobacco use among males aged 15 and over
Harmful alcohol use aged 15 and over
Health Financing
Health systems and policies
Density of health workers - physicians
Density of health workers - nurses and midwives
Density of health workers - pharmaceutical staff
Qualified obstetricians
Birth registration
At least basic drinking water
At least basic sanitation services
Open defecation
Implementation of AMRH Initiative

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What does it mean ?
Full Name:Under-five mortality rate
Full Unit: per 1,000 live births
Year-range of Data:2017
Source:UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation
Link to Source:http://www.childmortality.org
Date Source Published:18th September 2018
Date Source Accessed:22nd January 2019
Target Source: WHO and UNICEF
Link to Target: http://www.apromiserenewed.org/publications/
Alternative Data Sources
The target is taken from the target source as shown in the table on the left. This is the internationally agreed target for this indicator and country. Most targets are the same for all countries, but some may have different values for each country. Some indicators have no internationally agreed targets.

The threshold is taken from the same source where available. The threshold is an easier value than the target but shows good progress in achieving the target. For more details, go to ‘Find out more about indicator and sources’ via the Indicators page.

Under 5 mortality rate

What does it mean ?

The under-five mortality rate is the probability of a child dying before reaching the age of five; it is expressed per 1,000 live births and is subject to current age-specific mortality rates. A live birth refers to any baby that shows signs of life at birth.

Why does it matter ?

This indicator is a general indicator of child health. Rather than being an indicator that looks specifically at health care delivery it is an indicator of the socio-economic, environmental and nutritional status of children. This is because the determinants of child deaths are mainly connected with socio-economic and environmental factors, whereas for very young babies, reasons for deaths are more commonly related to weak health systems. Reducing under-5 mortality globally forms part of Sustainable Development Goal 3 Health and Wellbeing Target 3.2: To end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age. This indicator is also part of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030) under Survive: End preventable deaths.

How is it collected ?

If a country has a full birth and death registration system, then calculating under five mortality rates is simple as all births and deaths are recorded. Where registration systems are incomplete, information on the births and deaths of children under five are obtained from household surveys where women are asked about every baby they have given birth to and how long the child survived. The indicator can also be calculated from summary birth histories obtained through population censuses.

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More about indicator, sources and calculations

More about indicator and sources

Under the SDG Goal 3, Target 3.2: states that by 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.

Data are usually updated every year and available for all countries from 1990 – 2016, but if empirical data are available for earlier years in a country, UN IGME estimates are also available for earlier years. For more information, see the UN Child Mortality Estimates website: http://www.childmortality.org/

On this platform, we show projections for each country for this indicator when you review the indicator from the ‘countries’ option. The projection line is calculated based on a linear regression using the latest 5 data points. The colour of the line is defined by the target and threshold values. If the projected value meets or exceeds the target then the line is coloured green, if the projected value lies between the target and the threshold value then it is yellow, otherwise it is coloured red. For this indicator, the thresholds are set as follows:

Off track (red) if projected value reaches 75 per 1,000 livebirths or higher by 2030;

Making progress (yellow) if projected value reach 26 - 74 per 1,000 livebirths by 2030:

On track (green) if projected value reaches the target, 25 per 1,000 livebirths.

More information on calculations

In most African countries, registration is improving but is often incomplete. In these cases, other sources are used such as national surveys from a representative sample of households (e.g. the -supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and the US Agency for International Development–supported Demographic and Health Surveys) or population censuses. To calculate the mortality estimate, the data from these sources are fitted to a regression line using a particular model generated by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation.

For more information, see “Notes on the Data”: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/under-five-mortality/. See also “Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2017” http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/levels_trends_child_mortality_2017/en/

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